About Wheat and Flour

Origin of wheat is not known definitely. Moreover, there are a number of strong evidences that it is distributed from arid regions of Anatolia and highlands of Syria and Palestine. In archeological excavations realized especially in Anatolia, Egypt and Iraq, any carbonated wheat granules are encountered. Carbonated granules especially belonging to astivum and compactum species are encountered in Alacahoyuk and Alisarhoyuk in Anatolian excavations. Additionally, a less amount of durum wheat is encountered in Alisarhoyuk.

In Romans era, wheat agriculture prevailed over other cereals. Therefore, Rome is called “Wheat Empire”. But, in subsequent times, ryes prevailed through North Migrations in the Middle Ages in Europe. Together with exploration of America, wheat agriculture began in 17th century. Together with historical development of bread production technology, wheat production increased quickly after it is understand that wheat has highest flour efficiency and is most appropriate for bread over other cereals. Communities, who consume wheat, are qualified as more contemporary ones.

Consequently, today, wheat is drawn attention as a symbol of economical stability and a unique strategic product that sets light to feeding problem of the human being.

Wheat agriculture is encountered densely between northern latitudes 30-60 and southern latitudes 27-40 with regards to geographical distribution. There are species of wheat that may be grown 500 m higher than the sea level, in tropical regions and even in regions so closer to the poles. Deep clayed and loamy soils are best growth areas. Optimum climate requirement is 25 to 75 cm provided that rainfalls fall spring. Average temperature of the growth period is about 15°C. Cultivated wheat species having economical and trade significance are added to three species botanically:

1. Triticum aestivum
2. Triticum durum
3. Ttiticum compactum
Use purposes of flours having quality differences between species and kinds are determined.
Among three species, triticum aestivum, which is grown most commonly and exhibit widest variations in terms of color, hardness, softness, resistance to dona-kuraga diseases, ripening period, grinding characteristics, protein amount and quality, is evaluated as bread wheat. Kinds of wheat belonging to wheat species include wheat for macaroni. Kinds of wheat belonging to compactum species include wheat for biscuits.


Wheat flour is a semi-processed food obtained by grinding of shelled and annealed wheat. Source of the flour is granular endosperm. Unless it is specified otherwise, the term “flour” means wheat flour.

Food including wheat flour principally may be in many groups as beards having various types and features, cereals for breakfast, macaroni type products, cakes, cookies, pasties, and desserts such as baklava and lokma. Desired final product quality of each one of these products constituting hundreds of kinds is different more than others. Final product quality of foods and especially breads obtained from wheat flour is limited to quality of the flour by which these products shall be made. Flour quality includes ability to create a uniform, attractive final product having desirable features in wide context at a competitive price at any time under production conditions, and states different meanings with regards to kind of final product and users. Flour quality is estimated principally by measurable physical, chemical and technological features of flour and dough.

The term “high quality flour” is usually confused by the term “flour.” Strong flour is related especially to protein amount and quality in bread making. Principal criteria showing quality of breadstuffs includes color, protein amount, protein quality, uniformity, water absorption, kneading and fermentation tolerance of flours, ability of the dough to create gas, gas retention capacity of gluten and diastatic activity. After they are rested naturally, flours are subject to oxidation. Consequently, flours discolor and dough becomes easily processable. Fermentation tolerance of dough increases and more quality and effective breads are produced. Wheat flour appears in a white and homogenous structure at first glance. It consists principally of a large number of components. Such components have an effect on quality of the flour for breads. Each type of wheat flours exhibits any differences over others. Even if modern mills having advanced laboratories conduct floor production having a standard quality, quality of the wheat shall be affected absolutely

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